Controlled and Uncontrolled Standby Time and Pay out

A California employee might be exempt or nonexempt. An exempt worker retains an administrative, government, qualified, or an outdoors sale position, and is not entitled to pay out for standby or on-simply call time.

Any other staff is nonexempt and is entitled to added spend for standby time, which it’s possible negotiated previously mentioned the minimum amount wage of $8.00 per hour.

If a nonexempt employee is demanded to remain in the employer’s position of enterprise and reply to requests for assistance or emergencies, he or she must be paid out for all the hrs in the premises, like waiting around time.

If a nonexempt staff is not needed to remain in the employer’s position of business enterprise, but is essential to answer to a ask for by the employer to return to get the job done for an emergency, he or she should be paid for standby time when the time is managed, instead than uncontrolled.

Hrs Worked Under Federal And State Benchmarks:

“Several hours Labored,” below the Federal Good Labor Benchmarks Act and the utilizing regulation (29 C.F.R. 778.223) for which an staff need to be paid, include: ((a) all the time throughout which an personnel is demanded to be on obligation or to be on the employer’s premises or at a recommended office and (b) all the time all through which an worker is suffered or permitted to perform irrespective of whether or not he is demanded to do so.”

The definition of “hours labored” adopted by the California Division of Labor Specifications Enforcement in 1WC Wage Orders, Sections 2(K), on the other hand, extra broadly contains: (a) all the time in the course of which the worker is topic to the control of the employer and all the time through which the employee is endured or permitted to get the job done.

It need to be observed, nonetheless, that personnel in the health treatment industry furnishing individual treatment may get the job done 12-hour shifts at straight time pay. And workers needed to reside on the employer’s premises are exempt from extra time spend but not minimum amount wage.

Controlled Standby Time Compensated By Employer:

No matter whether standby time is regarded as “controlled” by the employer and ought to be paid relies upon on the limits placed on the use of the time for the personal reasons of the personnel.

If the standby time is completely unrestricted or free of charge for use for own reasons, it is uncontrolled and is not required to be paid. This standby time will not be considered compensable several hours labored. But if the employer so needs, uncontrolled standby time may be compensated reduce than bare minimum wage or by a lump sum.

As early as July 9, 1984, the California Supreme Courtroom, by means of Mr. Justice Reynoso, adopted a two-action examination in concluding that the significant limitations placed on the time (Code 7) of the officers, sergeants and dispatchers of Madera Law enforcement Section transformed that time into several hours worked. See MaderaPolice Officers Assn. v. City of Madera(1984), 36 Cal.3d 403 204 Cal.Rptr. 422 682 P.2d 1087.

The two-stage evaluation is composed of: initially, examining “whether the limitations on off-responsibility time are generally directed toward the achievement of the employer’s prerequisites and insurance policies” and second, analyzing “regardless of whether the employees’ off-obligation time is so considerably restricted that they are unable to engage in non-public pursuits.”

Both inquiries, according to the California Supreme Courtroom in Madera, supra, should be answered in the affirmative.

In 1992, the Ninth Circuit looked at two predominant elements in deciding irrespective of whether waiting around time is spent largely for the profit of the employer, to wit: (1) the diploma to which personnel are free to engage in personalized pursuits and (2) the agreements among the get-togethers, in Owens v. Neighborhood No. 169, Ass’n. of Western Pulp and Paper Personnel, 975 F. 2d 347 (9th Cir. 1992).

In Owens, supra, the Ninth Circuit concluded that no payment was demanded for on-phone time since the staff members relished a wide wide range of personal routines on on-call hrs and they agreed to the on-simply call system by continuing to perform beneath its conditions.

Phone-Back Journey Time And Pay:

A nonexempt staff on uncontrolled standby may possibly be identified as back again by an employer to conduct excess get the job done for an emergency immediately after the termination of the scheduled hrs of do the job.

This sort of an worker must be paid for all vacation time spent in responding to an emergency occupation of the employer’s buyers at the customer’s position of small business, underneath California’s Wage and Hour Division.

But no matter if travel time put in by an personnel for a get in touch with-back to and from the employer’s common area of business enterprise is compensable is unclear. Simply because California’s Wage and Hour Division has no formal placement thereon, quite a few California businesses do not spend for get in touch with-again travel time.

The doing the job time included in a connect with again is “several hours worked” and should be compensated by methods satisfactory to the California Wage and Hour Division, to wit: (1) at the level of a single and a single-50 % occasions the standard hourly rate or higher for actual time expended on the connect with-back again or (2) by assured number of hours of operate or shell out at the amount of one particular and a single-fifty percent situations the common hourly rate or better, for each and every phone-back again, in line with federal polices. See Wage and Hour Guide by Richard J. Simmons, Castle Publications Constrained, pp. 234-235, 321-322.


Compensation for standby (on-phone) time of a nonexempt personnel depends on no matter whether it is managed or uncontrolled by the employer.

If controlled, it have to be compensated if uncontrolled, it will need not be paid. The unsettled concerns are payment of vacation time of phone-back and way of payment of time invested on get in touch with-back again.

More From My Blog